Autonomous vehicles will share roads with human-driven vehicles until the transition to fully autonomous transport systems is complete. The critical challenge of improving mutual understanding between both vehicle types cannot be addressed only by feeding extensive driving data into data-driven models but by enabling autonomous vehicles to understand and apply common driving behaviors analogous to human drivers. Therefore, we designed and conducted two electroencephalography experiments for comparing the cerebral activities of human linguistics and driving understanding. The results showed that driving activates hierarchical neural functions in the auditory cortex, which is analogous to abstraction in linguistic understanding. Subsequently, we proposed a neural-informed, semantics-driven framework to understand common human driving behavior in a brain-inspired manner. This study highlights the pathway of fusing neuroscience into complex human behavior understanding tasks and provides a computational neural model to understand human driving behaviors, which will enable autonomous vehicles to perceive and think like human drivers.